History of Jharkhand : Timeline
For a greater part of Vedic age, History of Jharkhand remained buried. Around 500 BC, during the age of Mahajanpadas, India saw the emergence of 16 large states that controlled the entire Indian subcontinent. The supremacy of the Janpads was often decided by the power of swords. Magadha was the Janpad who controlled the region extremely rice in its mineral resources around Jharkhand. In the 13th century, Raja Jai Singh Deo of Odisha declared himself as the ruler of Jharkhand. Later on, Jharkhand region came under the Mughal Empire. Jharkhand was known as Kukara region during the days of the Mughal Empire.
During the year 1765, the Jharkhand region came under the rule of British colonizers. At this time the region became formally known under its present title “JHARKHAND” means the Land of “Jungles” (forests), located on Chota Nagpur Plateau and Santhal Parganas. The subjugation and colonization of Jharkhand region by East India Company resulted immense resistance from the local tribal of Jharkhand. A series of repeated revolts started against the British colonial rule.
As soon as the British took over the Jharkhand region (Chota Nagpur Plateau and Santhal Paraganas), tribal revolts broke out to challenge the British rule. Almost one hundred years before India’s First War of Independence (in 1857), adivasis of Jharkhand were already beginning what would become a series of repeated revolts against the British colonial rule. In the early years of colonization, no other community in India offered such heroic resistance to British rule as did the numerous Adivasi communities of now Jharkhand, Chhatisgarh, Orissa and Bengal.
1765 : Successful military mobilization to bring Santhal Pargana under British rule
1767 : Successful entry of British rule in Singhbhum
1767-1805: Chuar revolt
1766-80 : Paharia revolt
1771-1819 : British attack on Palamau and Chero revolt
1880 : Establishment of Ramgarh hill track
1780-85 : Tilka Manjhi led the tribal revolt and managed to injure British army chief
1785 : Tilka Manjhi hanged to death in Bhagalpur
1795-1800 : Tamar revolt
1793 : The era of permanent settlement started
1797 : Munda revolt under the leadership of Vishnu Manaki
1798 : Again Chuar revolt in Birbhum Bankura
1798-99 : Bhumij revolt of Manbhoom
1800-02 : Chero revolt
1800-02 : Munda revolt under the stewardship of Dukhan Manaki of Tamar
1819-20 : Munda revolt in Palamu under the leadeship of Bhukan Singh
1820 : First Kol revolt started under the leadershjip of Konta and Rugdev
1824 : Daman-e-Koh established
1831-32 : The great Kol revolt
1834 : South-West Frontier established
1832-33 : Kherwar revolt under the leadership of Bhagirath, Dubai Gosai and Patel Singh
1833-34 : Bhumij revolt under the leadership of Ganga Narain of Birbhum
1837 : Attack on Kolhan and Establishment of Kolhan government estate
1855 : Santhals waged war against the permanent settlement of Lord Cornwallis
1855-60 : During late 1850s Sidhu had accumulated about Ten Thousands Santhals to run parallel govt. against British rule. The basic purpose was to collect taxes by making his own laws. British govt. had announced an award of Rs. Ten Thousand to arrest Sido and his brother Kanhu. This movement remained very active in Kahalgaon and Raniganj.
1856 : Police brigade was constituted
1856-57 : Martyr Sahid Lal, Vishwanath Shahdeo, Sheikh Bhikhari, Ganptrai and Budhu Veer led a movement against the British gov. in the sepoy mutiny
1860-80 : Kharia movement started under the leadership of Telanga Kharia in Simdega and Gumla area.
1859-95 : The era of Sardari movement.
1874 : Kherwar movement shot into fame under the leadership of Bhagirathi Manjhi
1881 : Kherwar movement started
1895-1900 : Launching of ULGLAN under the leadership of Birsa
1908 : Introduction of Chotanagpur Tenancy Act.
1912 : Bihar bifurcated from Bengal and Orissa, some parts of Chotanagpur merged into Bengal
1913 : Chotnagpur Unnati Samaj established.The main leader of the samaj was Pal Dayal ,Thebale Oraon and Jueal Lakara
1914 : Tana Bhagat movement started which had the participation of more than 26000 Adivasi.
1915 : Publication of Adivasi titled magazine started
1929 : Simon commission presented with a memorandum which demanded the information of Jharkhand state
1936 : Orissa was created as a separate state
1938 : Chotanagpur Adivasi Sabha established under Egnes Beck.
1939 : Gangapur revolt and Simko firing
1941 : Pt. Raghunath Murmu invented ’0l chiki” script
1947 : All Jharkhand party established
1948 : Kharsawan and Saraikela firing and establishment of United Jharkhand block.
1950 : Jharkhand party established under the leadership of Jaipal Singh Munda.
1950-58 : Kharwar forest movement under Fetal Singh
1951 : Jharkhand party was elected to Vidhan Sabha as a main opposition party
1955 : Demand for separate state before state reorganising commission.
1967 : Birsa Seva Dal’s movement and establishment of All India Jharkhand party
1968 : Hul Jharkhand party established
1969 : Shibu Soren founded the Sonot Santhal Samaj
1971 : Com. A.K.Roy founded the Marxist Co-ordination Committee (M.C.C) to demand the separate Jharkhand state
1973 : N.E.Horo named his party as Jharkhand Party and on March 12th he presented the then Prime Minister a memorandum for separate Jharkhand state
1973 : Koyal-Karo movement started against the proposed hydro-power project
1973 : Jharkhand Mukati Morcha established by Shibu Soren and Nirmal Mahto
1977 : Jharkhand party proposed for separate Jharkhand state which included not only Chotanagpur and Santhal Pargana of Bihar but adjoining area of Bengal
1978 : The convention of All India Jharkhand Party was held on May 21
1978 : Jungal Aandolan started in Singhbhum
1980 : Dr. Kumar Suresh Singh, Vice- Chancellor of Ranchi University established separate department for Tribal and Reginal languages.
1980 : Establishment of Jharkhand Kranti Dal
1980 : The famous Gua firing took place in W. Singbhum, 9 innocent villagers killed
1985 : Demand for union territory status
1985 : Sixteen innocent people including former member of parliament Anthony Murmu of Banjhi village of Santhal Pargana killed in police firing
1986 : Establishment of All Jharkhand Student Union(AJSU), gave its first call on 25th September for Jharkhand band, it was a huge success
1987 : Call for boycott of Independence day. The home minister of India directed the Bihar government to prepare a report on detailed profile of all districts of Chotnagpur and Santhal Pargana
1987 : Jharkhand Co-ordination Committee (JCC) established, same year on 8th August Niramal Mahato, president JMM brutally killed in Jamshedpur
1989 : Jharkhandi organisation for human rights (JOHAR) formed to give momentum to the on going Jharkhand movement and to expose the rigorous crime of state and central government
1989 : 72 hours of economic blockade by AJSU was total success
1989 : 6 days of economic blockade by Jharkhand Mukti Morcha was success
1991 : Jharkhand peoples party established
1992 : A movement started against the radiation problem faced by the people of Jadugora
1993 : A movement started against the Netarhat field firing range
1994 : On Jan 6 Laloo Prasad Yadav declared in Ranchi that Jharkhand autonomous council bill will be passed in budget session
1995 : Jharkhand autonomous council was formed which comprised of 18 districts of Santhal Pargana and Chotanagpur and Shibu Soren was nominated as the Chairman
1997 : Bihar government sanctioned 24 Crores for conducting the elections of Jharkhand Autonomous Council
1997 : Shibu Soren offered support to minority government of Laloo Prasad Yadav with a condition of a separate Jharkhand bill in the assembly
1998 : Separate Vananchal statehood,BJP-lead NDA government announced in parliament and regarding separate state bill sent to president of India.
2000 : 0n 14th of April, Com. Gurudas Chattergee of Marxist Co-ordination Committee (MCC) and popular trade union leader, killed by coal mafia.
2000 : On 25th of April Bihar legislative assembly passed the Bihar state reorganising bill-2000
2000 : On 25th of August, Lok Sabha passed the bill regarding separate state of Jharkhand
2000 : On 15th of November, Separate Jharkhand state formed
2001 : The Jharkhand Govt. formed four more districts-Simdega, Latehar, Saraikela-Kharsawan, Jamtara
2002 : The affected people of mining industry formed Jharkhand Mines Area Co-ordination Committee (JMACC) tom fight against the unjust mining.
2003 : This year Jharkhand witnessed the outburst of indigenous people on the issue of reservation (Domicile issue) in Govt. job
2003 : Jharkhand Janadhikar Party formed.
2003 : Jharkhandi Bhasha Sahitya Sanskriti Akhara jointly formed by tribal and indigenous community of Jharkhand
2003 : On 22th December Santhali language included in 8th schedule of Indian constitution, thus Santhali become the first Aadivasi language which got place in Indian constitution.
2003 : The birth centenary of Marang Gomke Jaipal Singh Munda and Pyara Kerketta, the great social reformer and educationalist celebrated state-wide
2004-05 : The birth centenary of Guru Gomke Pt. Raghunath Murmu, the inventor of Ol-Chiki, script celebrated.
2004 : Finally state government scraped the Koyal-Karo hydro-thermal power project, after long struggle of indigenous people.
2005 : Com. Mahendra Singh, leader of CPI-ML (Liberation) and great champion of common people ‘s cause was killed during the election campaigning
2005 : First assembly election, after the formation of Jharkhand held
2005 : The 2nd birth centenary of Telanga Kharia celebrated state-wide
2005 : The 150th anniversary of Santhal Hul celebrated world-wide